Southern Italy - Art

Italy, officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Southern Europe. To the north, Italy borders France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia, and is approximately delimited by the Alpine watershed, enclosing the Po Valley and the Venetian Plain. To the south, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula and the two biggest Mediterranean islands of Sicily and Sardinia. Italian territory also includes the islands of Pantelleria, 60 km (37 mi) east of the Tunisian coast and 100 km (62 mi) southwest of Sicily, and Lampedusa, at about 113 km (70 mi) from Tunisia and at 176 km (109 mi) from Sicily, in addition to many other smaller islands. The sovereign states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italy, while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 (116,347 sq mi) and has a largely temperate climate. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the 5th most populous country in Europe. Among the world's most developed countries, Italy has the 4th-largest economy in the European Union, 3rd in the Eurozone and 9th in the world by GDP (IMF, 2012). Italy's capital and largest city, Rome, has for centuries been the leading political and religious center of Western civilization, serving as the capital of both the Roman Empire and Christianity. During the Dark Ages, Italy endured cultural and social decline in the face of repeated invasions by Germanic tribes, with Roman heritage being preserved largely by Christian monks. Beginning around the 11th century, various Italian cities, communes and maritime republics rose to great prosperity through shipping, commerce and banking (indeed, modern capitalism has its roots in Medieval Italy); concurrently, Italian culture flourished, especially during the Renaissance, which produced many notable scholars, artists, and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. Meanwhile, Italian explorers such as Polo, Columbus, Vespucci, and Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Nevertheless, Italy would remain fragmented into many warring states for the rest of the Middle Ages, subsequently falling prey to larger European powers such as France, Spain, and later Austria. Italy would thus enter a long period of decline that lasted until the beginning of the 18th century. After many unsuccessful attempts, the second and the third wars of Italian independence resulted in the unification of most of present-day Italy between 1859 and 1866. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, the new Kingdom of Italy rapidly industrialized and acquired a colonial empire becoming a Great Power. However, Southern and rural Italy remained largely excluded from industrialization, fueling a large and influential diaspora. Despite victory in World War I as one of the Big Four with permanent membership in the security council of the League of Nations, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, which favored the establishment of a Fascist dictatorship in 1922. The subsequent participation in World War II, at the side of Nazi Germany and Japan forming the Axis Alliance, ended in military defeat, economic destruction and civil war. In the years that followed, Italy abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, and enjoyed a prolonged economic boom, thus becoming one of the most developed nations in the world, with the fifth largest economy by nominal GDP by the early 1990s. Italy was a founding member of NATO in 1949 and one of the Inner Six of the European Community in 1957, which became the EU in 1993. It is part of the Schengen Area, and has been a member of the Eurozone since 1999.

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Southern Italy

African Wildlife - A Safari Medley Alaska Mountains Alaskan Rivers And Waterways Beijing Beijing Street Food Big Sur And Pfeiffer Beach Birds In Flight Bokeh Buskers One Buskers Two Cape Peninsula Cape Town Carmel Sunrise Sunset CityScapes Eastern Sector - Tanzania's Serengeti National Park Elk Of The Canadian Rockies Espanola Island In The Galapagos Archipelago Fire Island Floreana Island In The Galapagos Archipelago From The Heights Of One World Trade Center Genovesa Island In The Galapagos Archipelago Guilin Iberia Isabela Island In The Galapagos Archipelago Istanbul Lake Louise London Parks Longwood Meadow Machu Picchu Marayali Cano Y Lago Clavero Monet's Gardens At Giverny Monet's Water Lilies Mykonos Ngorongoro Conservation Area North Seymour Island In The Galapagos Archipelago Northern Europe Norway From Flam To Ny-Alesund To Gravdal To Bergen Paris Provence Burgundy And Monaco Peruvian Paso Point Lobos Rio Dorado Y Rio Pacaya Rio Maranan Y Nauta Cano Rio Yanayacu Y Rio Pucate Rio Zapote Y Laguna Yanayacu Sabi Sabi Game Reserve Within Kruger National Park Santiago Island In The Galapagos Archipelago Santorini Sea Lions Of The Galapagos Archipelago Serengeti National Park Balloon Safari Southern Italy Special Captures St. Petersburg Supay Cano Y Rio Yarapa Tarangire National Park The Three Gorges Tinga Game Reserve Within Kruger National Park United Kingdom Victoria Fall - The Town And Its Environs Water Lily Western Sector - Tanzania's Serengeti National Park Yellowstone National Park Part I - Mammoth Hot Springs Area Yellowstone National Park Part II - Old Faithful Geyser And The Upper Geyser Basin Area Yellowstone National Park Part III - Norris Geyser Basin Area Yosemite National Park Zanzibar Dhows Zanzibar Red Colobus Zimbabwe And Mosi-oa-Tunya